The Wars of Independence




The third and best known event in this catalogue of invasions and failure of absorption is the wars that erupted after King Edward I’s invasion of Scotland in 1296 in the wake of the crisis produced by the accidental death of King Alexander III. Beginning in 1296 the conflict continued on and off until it essentially petered out in the 1330’s. As in the previous periods of conflict this time which probably marks  the greatest period of conflict in Scottish history radically altered the existing society and propelled it in a radically different direction. During the conflict approximately two-thirds of the land in Scotland changed hands as well as the monarchy itself and at least seven earldoms.  The wars themselves turned on Robert Bruce’s decisive victory at Bannockburn in June 1314 though it continued with long intervals into the 1330’s when there had been a renewed invasion of Scotland by Edward III in 1333.

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