4/DzYIouSSyukYsJyHWJqr3poke_32xrx70pN_GJH8MYQ

The Background to the Battle of Bannockburn 1314 and for Scottish History

_62673316_004717378-1

The Battle of Bannockburn 1314 is frequently mentioned in the Scottish Independence debate. Indeed there is a major celebration to mark its 700th anniversary this year.  While most people know of the battle as a defining moment in Scottish history few know anything at all about the general  background to this important event. Bannockburn was the decisive encounter in the Wars of Independence which themselves were the greatest crisis in Scottish history. Marking as they do  the ending of many previous historical and social developments and the beginning of many others. It is simply not possible to imagine the course of Scottish history if this crisis triggered by the death of Alexander III in 1286 had not occurred.

The Battle of Bannockburn fought over the 23rd to the 24th June 1314 should  be seen as very much the exception to the rule of a war marked by manoeuvre , guerrilla tactics and small-scale engagements. It was essentially caused by the Anglo-Norman leadership of the invading English army positioning themselves in a hopeless tactical position on their arrival before Stirling on the day before the main battle on the 23rd June. Prior to this it had been the intention of King Robert the Bruce (I) to withdraw before the powerful army advancing on Stirling as had been the custom of most Scottish leaders since the beginning of the war in 1296 when there had been an initial series of three battles; Dunbar in that year when the Royal army of Scotland was routed and King John Baliol captured by Edward I. William Wallace and Andrew Moray’s great victory the following year in 1297 at Stirling Bridge and William Wallace’s defeat at Falkirk in 1298. Since then Scottish leaders including Robert Bruce had studiously avoided pitched battles until the extraordinary chance fell to Robert Bruce before the fortress of Stirling in 1314. To appreciate the reasons for this and for the nature of the actual battle it is necessary to understand the type of  terrain surrounding Stirling and the tremendous importance of the fortress because of this. Before the area surrounding Stirling was drained during the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was heavily water-logged with extensive marsh lands inter spaced  by large areas of dense woodland. Contemporaries described it as being practically like an island with one old Roman road running through the passable terrain making it the only practical land route to the lands north of the Forth estuary. Hence its critical importance for the control of Scotland in this period..

The second reason that brought the battle about was the unwise decision by Robert Bruce’s brother Edward to offer an agreement to the Governor of Stirling castle that if the castle was not relieved from his siege by mid-summers day 1314 that it would be surrendered to Edward Bruce . As Stirling was the last major fortress left in English hands in Scotland this was bound to provoke even the lethargic and distracted Edward II to attempt its relieve it and this is what duly happened leading to the of the Battle of Bannockburn on the 23rd and 24th June 1314.

 

 

 

 

The Treaty of Union of 1707 in Scottish History

James VIII

There is frequent reference to the Treaty of Union of 1707 in the Scottish Independence debate at the present time. This is twinned with repeated mention of the economic reasons for it but there is remarkably little comment about the primary reason for the making of this treaty  It was in reality an agreement made between the two Whig(Radical) parties in Scotland and England which centred on the major political problem of the period namely  the disputed succession to both the kingdoms of England and Scotland.  The monarch of the time, Queen Anne,daughter of the deposed King James VII(II) was childless and was not expected to survive for any length of time and the increasingly urgent political question of the period was who was to succeed her on the thrones of both England and Scotland. The main claimant was the son of the exiled King James VII(died 1701) who his supporters, known as Jacobites, from the latin for James, Jacobus called King James VIII(III). However he was a Catholic who refused to accept the Revolutionary Settlement of 1688 which meant the Whig party in England turning to George, Elector of Hanover. There was an added complication in that England was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession 1702 – 13 which meant France would back James’s attempt to regain the thrones for the Stewart (now renamed to Stuart) dynasty which made it imperative for the English Parliament to get the Act of Succession adopted by the Scottish Parliament thus barring the Stewart kings return. The Scottish Parliament used this lever to force concessions from England and the Treaty of Union of !707 between the two Whig parties emerged. The supporters of the exiled King James strongly opposed this agreement and thereafter sought to undo the 1707 treaty and insure the Succession of James to the thrones of both kingdoms through repeated Jacobite Rebellions of which that in 1745 is the best known.

 

 

Flags of Scotland

St_Andrews_Cross          Royal_Arms_of_Scotland

 

There are two main flags of Scotland which are often used interchangeably. This is incorrect as one the St Andrew’s Cross or Saltire is the National Flag and the other the red and yellow Lion Rampant. The two Flags are illustrated above:-

The Saltire has been used since the ninth century AD, though the blue background was only mentioned in 1542. The Lion Rampant ahs been used since the thirteenth century though the design has altered to some extent.

Welcome to Scotland and its Culture

St_Andrews_Cross

This is a new blog which will seek to describe all aspects of life in Scotland both in the past and in the present. It will be produced in instalments. .

Scotland is a country located in Northern Europe. It has a population of 5.2 million.It has a varied and beautiful landscape especially in the Highlands. Its national flag is the St Andrews Cross or Saltire(see above). It has an interesting past and an even more interesting present.  Please have a read of it and reply if you wish. Comments will be welcomed.