The fourth major period of dislocation was and one of the most important in Scottish history was that essentially covered by the disastrous failure of the Stewart or Stuart dynasty after its move to England from Scotland in the seventeenth century and its resultant conflicts with large parts of Scottish society during the course of that century and beyond.Through its prior conflict with King Charles I from 1637 – 41 then later with the intervention in the English Civil War from 1644 -46 Scotland became deeply involved in that on-going conflict producing widespread loss of life and economic collapse. After a period of relative calm in 1688 came the final debacle with the expulsion of the Stuart dynasty in the shape of King James VII from England and its ultimate loss in the subsequent civil war in Scotland despite its significant victory at Killiecrankie in 1689. The next sixty years were marked by attempts to restore the Stuart dynasty by what became known as the Jacobite movement (from the Latin for James – Jacobus). Though the Jacobite threat to the new Hanoverian dynasty effectively ended with the Battle of Culloden in 1746 the movement continued its activities until 1760. This then marked a decisive moment in Scottish history as real absorption of Scotland and particularly its elites could for the first time begin for a significant period. Though perhaps surprisingly this did not occur to a large extent until after the Second World War. Thereafter the process did get underway leading within a short time to the present period of dislocation outlined on the next page.